There are several reasons why you may be looking for a new light source. Your old lighting no longer works and needs to be replaced. Or you want to improve the atmosphere in your home or company. At Any-Lamp, we are happy to help our customers. This way you are ensured that you pick the right light bulb or fixture. We also gladly inform you about aspects that you need to take into account in order for a light source to work properly. Therefore, you will find various useful tips and / or facts on this page that will help you with the purchase of a LED light or conventional light source.
Table of contents
- Types of light sources at Any-Lamp
- Lamp base (socket) of a light source
- Voltage; with or without transformer
- Conventional or electronic ballast
- Lumen, Lux and Watt
- Colour rendering and light colours
- Dimming; conventional and LED
- Beam angle of a light source
- Motion sensor and twilight switch
- Glare level (UGR) LED panels
- Energy efficiency class
- IP and IK protection light sources
Over the years, various types of lighting have been introduced on the market. However, due to the increasing attention towards the environment, certain types of lighting are less and less available (phasing out of non-durable lighting). This has two reasons: the inefficient energy consumption of these lights and the harmful substances they contain. Below is an overview of the various light sources that are available at Any-Lamp:
Incandescent bulbs are one of the oldest lighting technologies and are resistant to intense shocks due to the robust tungsten filament. Incandescent light bulbs have an E27 or E14 socket. Pay attention! Incandescent bulbs have been phased out since 2009. This means that these bulbs are no longer produced. The remaining stock is still sold.
Halogen bulbs contain halogen gas, which provides a more constant, intense and efficient light. Halogen bulbs have a longer lifespan than incandescent bulbs and are available in various sockets. Keep in mind that halogen light sources have not been produced since September 2018 (phasing out). The remaining stock is still sold.
Fluorescent tubes contain mercury (a substance that makes the phosphor layer glow when an electric current goes through) and need a ballast to work. Due to the high light output and the long lifespan, this lighting is often used in offices and warehouses. Since fluorescent tubes are an energy-inefficient form of lighting, fluorescent tubes will be phased out from September 2021 onwards.
Gas discharge lamps are filled with noble gases, but often also contain other materials such as mercury. Gas discharge lamps have an intense light and a long lifespan. They are often used for street lighting or warehouse lighting. Certain gas discharge lamps only work with a ballast. Since April 2015, the gas discharge lamps with a high degree of mercury are no longer in production.
Energy-saving bulbs, also known as compact fluorescent lights (CFL), have a low power consumption, making them the most efficient and energy-efficient conventional light source. CFL bulbs have an E27 / E14 socket or a socket with pins (2-Pin or 4-Pin). CFL lights with a 2-Pin or 4-Pin socket require a ballast. Energy-saving bulbs are used in homes and business environments.
LED lights use an electrical semiconductor to produce light. As a result, LED light sources can have a very compact size. LED lighting has a low energy consumption, a good light quality and an extremely long lifespan. In addition, they contain no chemicals, so they are not harmful to the environment. LED lighting has innovative alternatives for every conventional light source!
Light sources can only be replaced by lights that have the same lamp base, also called a socket. You can for example only replace an E14 bulb with an E14 (LED) bulb. And you should replace a GU10 LED spot with another LED spot with a GU10 socket. Any other type of socket will not fit in the fixture of the light source. The image below gives an overview of the most common lamp bases at Any-Lamp.
Light sources are connected to the power network (230V). Although 230V light sources work on the power network (mains) without any problems, 12V light sources need a transformer to convert the 230V into 12V. This works the same for other voltages, such as 6V and 24V. The wattage of light sources determines which transformer is needed. Transformers have a minimum and maximum load, for example 20-70W. Since lights need extra energy for a short period of time when they are switched on, it is advisable to use a reserve of 20-30%. Three examples:
You connect two 20W lights to a 20-70W transformer. The reserve for one 20W light is 4-6W. This results in a total wattage of up to 52W. This is within the load of the transformer. So the light sources will work without any problems.
You replace the 20W lights with 4W LED lights. The reserve is 0.8-1.2W per LED. This brings the maximum total wattage to 10.4W. This is lower than the minimum load of the 20-70W transformer, causing the light sources to flicker or to not work at all.
You connect a second 30W light to the 20-70W transformer. With 6-9W reserve per light, the maximum wattage is 78W. This exceeds the maximum load. As a result, the transformer switches off (no lighting) or the light sources do not work properly.
Certain lighting (fluorescent tubes, LED tubes and gas discharge lamps) uses a ballast. A ballast ensures that a light source receives the correct amount of power; you can think of it as an energy regulator. There are two types of ballasts:
Conventional ballasts (EM) contain a coil wire that creates a magnetic field. In addition, a starter is required to operate the light source; this gives the light an energy boost to light up. This causes a short flicker with fluorescent tubes when the light is switched on. Nowadays, there are only conventional ballasts available with energy class A2 or higher.
Electronic ballasts (HF) supply the light source with energy by using electronic power supply circuits. These electronic ballasts have a built-in starter; it does not have to be purchased. The advantage of an electronic ballast is that there is no flickering when a light is switched on. Moreover, it is more energy efficient than the conventional ballast.
The introduction of CFL bulbs and LED lights has created confusion about what the light output of a light source represents. In conventional lighting, the wattage implied the brightness of a light. Nowadays, the wattage only tells something about the energy consumption of a light source. The light output is indicated by the number of Lumens, but the term Lux can also be used. For more information about Lumen and Watt, see the Lumen to Watt page. Here you will find which wattage for a certain lighting type provides which light output (number of Lumens). If you switch from a conventional light source to LED, then you need to take a good look at the wattage of the old light. For LED products, Any-Lamp mentions which wattage it replaces. As a result, the old and the new light source match each other as much as possible.
Lumen represents the total light output of a light source. Lux also indicates the light output of a light source, but in this case the surface over which the light is spread is taken into account. An example: You have an LED light with a light output of 250 Lumen. If the light illuminates a room of 1 square meter, the light output is also 250 Lux. If the same light illuminates a room of 10 square meters, the light output is either 250 Lumen or 25 Lux per square meter. You can read more about the difference between Lumen and Lux here.
When you talk about the colour of lighting, you come across three terms: the colour temperature, the colour rendering and the colour code. The following applies: Colour code = Colour rendering + Colour temperature. More specifically, the colour code consists of the Ra value (Colour Rendering Index) and the number of Kelvin (colour temperature).
The first number in the colour code indicates the colour rendering index (CRI). Below are the most common Ra values; you can click on these values to see all light sources with the desired colour rendering:
The second and third number in the colour code represent the colour temperature. Below are the most common light colours; you can click on your favorite light colour to see all suitable light sources:
The CRI shows how ''colour real'' the light represents the actual colour. A perfect colour result can be achieved with lights that have a 90-100Ra colour rendering (left photo). In this case, colours do not deviate from the actual colours. 90- 100Ra lights are usually used in working environments such as hospitals, print rooms, drawing rooms, clothing stores and art galleries. In general areas, offices and homes, a 80-89Ra CRI is recommended (middle photo). Hereby, the deviation in colours is minimal. A CRI of 70-79Ra (right photo) or lower shows a visible difference between colours in lighted rooms and actual colours.
The light colour plays a major role in the mood of a room. While warmer colour temperatures are mainly used for creating a pleasant and / or cozy atmosphere, colder light colours are suitable for work environments in which concentration is important.
- 1800 - 2700K (very warm white) is very suitable for atmospheric spaces, such as restaurants, living rooms and bedrooms.
- 3000K (warm white) is very suitable for general areas and routine workplaces, such as kitchens, reception areas, waiting areas, corridors and stairwells.
- 4000K (cool white) is very suitable for working environments, such as offices, schools and warehouses.
- 6500K (daylight) is very suitable for detailed work, such as in operating rooms, at the dentist and in drawing rooms.
Below you can view LED fixtures in various colour temperatures!
Dimming is the reduction of the intensity of a light source. The more you dim a light, the less electricity the light needs. Dimmable lighting makes it possible to match the atmosphere in a room to the activity you are doing. For example, you need more light in the living room when you are reading a book than when you are watching a movie. Nowadays, you not only have dimmable lights with one light colour, but you also have dimmable lights with multiple light colours in one, such as dimmable LED lights from Noxion (1800 - 2700K and 2200 - 2700K), DimTone lights (2200 - 2700K) from Philips and the GlowDim (2200 - 2700K) from Osram. This allows you to adjust the light colour even better to the environment. When dimming light sources, you should take the following into account:
There are standard dimmers and LED dimmers. Conventional lights (halogen, CFL, etc.) can be dimmed with a standard dimmer or a LED dimmer. LED lighting can only be dimmed with a LED dimmer. If you switch to LED, you need to replace the dimmer with a LED dimmer! Each dimmer has a maximum load. Are you connecting one or more light sources that have a higher wattage than the maximum load of the dimmer? Then lights can flicker undesirably or not dim proportionally.
If you want to dim light sources that are connected to a transformer, you need a dimmable transformer. In addition, it is useful to choose a transformer that has the same maximum load as the dimmer. How can you tell if your transformer is dimmable? The minimum and maximum load is stated at the rear of a transformer. Below you can see whether a transformer is dimmable. The Osram transformers for example state: 'dimmable with leading and trailing edge phase control'.
The beam angle of a light source indicates in which angle the light is spread. This is measured in degrees (D). When purchasing a light, it is important to determine what the function of the light is; accent lighting (creating atmosphere or illuminating an object), auxiliary lighting or general lighting. If a light source is used as general lighting, you need a wider beam angle for large surfaces (very wide) than for smaller surfaces (wide). Furthermore, a narrow beam angle is recommended for high ceilings and a wider one for low ceilings.
- Narrow (<24D) is very suitable as accent lighting.
- Medium (25D - 40D) is very suitable as accent lighting or auxiliary lighting.
- Wide (41D - 90D) is very suitable as auxiliary lighting or general lighting.
- Very wide (>91D) is very suitable as general lighting.
You can choose to purchase lights or fixtures that are equipped with a sensor. Sensors switch on the light as soon as movement is detected or when there is too little daylight. Sensor lighting is available for indoor and outdoor use. The different types of sensor lighting are listed below:
Light sources with a motion sensor only light up when motion is detected. There is a difference between standard motion sensors (detect visible movements) and high frequency sensors (detect extremely small movements, which do not have to be visible perse). In addition, there are also light sources that contain an orientation light in addition to a motion sensor. These lights shine at 100% brightness as soon as they detect movement, while the rest of the time they shine at a lower brightness (example given 10%).
Lighting with a twilight switch illuminates as soon as too little daylight is detected. This is not only in the evening and at night, but also during the day on grey gloomy days. The natural light in an area is constantly measured to make sure the light switches on accordingly. Light sources with a twilight switch can literally switch on and off, but can also gradually illuminate more and more. Light sources with a twilight switch are mainly used outdoors. Therefore, a water-resistant fixture is recommended.
LED panels have an UGR value (Unified Glare Rating), which signifies the glare level of the fixture. In other words; to what extent does the LED panel cause light nuisance. For specific sectors, the NEN standard specifies which UGR value the lighting should have. Below is an overview of the UGR values:
- UGR<25 is very suitable for halls, stairs and lifts.
- UGR<22 is very suitable for general areas.
- UGR<19 is very suitable for offices and schools.
- UGR<16 is very suitable for specific applications, such as an operating room or drawing room.
- UGR<15 is very suitable for specific applications, such as an operating room or drawing room.
The energy efficiency class implies how energy efficient a light source is. Energy efficiency classes range from A++ (very energy efficient) to E (not energy efficient at all). The use of LED lighting is a simple way to achieve a green energy class. LED lights are not only energy efficient, but also do not contain any harmful substances that can end up in the environment.
IP and IK values indicate how well a luminaire is protected against external influences (dust, water and impact). The IP value indicates to what extent a luminaire is resistant to dust and water and is displayed as IP followed by 2 numbers. The first number implies the protection against dust and the second number the protection against water. The IK value indicates to what extent a luminaire can take a beating and is displayed as IK followed by 2 digits. In the tables below you can see how to interpret an IP and IK value.
EXAMPLE: A LED fixture with a value of IP66 is completely dustproof and can withstand powerful water jets.
First number IP value
|Level||Protected against object size||Effective against|
|0||Not protected||No protection against contact and ingress of objects.|
|1||>50mm||Any large area of the body, such as the back of a hand, but no protection against deliberate contact with a body part.|
|2||>12.5mm||Any large area of the body, such as the back of a hand, but no protection against deliberate contact with a body part.|
|3||>2.5mm||Tools, thick wires, etc.|
|4||>1mm||Most wires, screws, etc.|
|5||Protected against dust||Ingress of dust is not completely prevented, but in a small amount it is not a nuisance when the equipment is used correctly; full protection against contact.|
|6||Completely dustproof||No ingress of dust, full protection against contact.|
Second number IP value
|Level||Protected against waterforce||Effective against|
|0||Not protected||No protection.|
|1||Dripping water||Dripping water (vertically falling drops) has no harmful effect.|
|2||Dripping water when tilted to 15 degrees||Vertical dripping water will have no harmful effect if the case is tilted up to 15 degrees from its usual position.|
|3||Spraying water||Spraying water from any angle up to 60 degrees from vertical will have no harmful effect.|
|4||Splashing water||Water splashing against the fence from any direction will have no harmful effect.|
|5||Powerful water jets||Water that is sprayed from every possible direction with a powerful water jet (12.5mm nozzle) against the housing has no harmful effect.|
|6||Powerful water jets under increased pressure||Water that is sprayed from every possible direction with a powerful water jet (6.3mm nozzle), under increased pressure, against the housing has no harmful effect.|
|7||Immersion up to 1 meter||Ingress of harmful amounts of water is not possible when the housing is immersed in water, under defined conditions of pressure and time.|
|8||Immersion deeper than 1 meter||The equipment is suitable for continuous immersion in water, under conditions specified by the manufacturer. Normally this means that the equipment is hermetically sealed. However, for some products this may mean that water can enter, but in a way that will not cause harmful effects.|
|Level||Protected against impact (Joule)||Effective against|
|00||Not protected||No protection.|
|01||Withstands shocks of 0.14 Joule||A falling object of 200 grams at a height of 75 millimeters.|
|02||Withstands shocks of 0.2 Joule||A falling object of 200 grams at a height of 100 millimeters.|
|03||Withstands shocks of 0.35 Joule||A falling object of 200 grams at a height of 175 millimeters.|
|04||Withstands shocks of 0.5 Joule||A falling object of 200 grams at a height of 250 millimeters.|
|05||Withstands shocks of 0.7 Joule||A falling object of 200 grams at a height of 350 millimeters.|
|06||Withstands shocks of 1 Joule||A falling object of 500 grams at a height of 200 millimeters.|
|07||Withstands shocks of 2 Joule||A falling object of 500 grams at a height of 400 millimeters.|
|08||Vandal resistant and resistant to 5 Joule shocks||A falling object of 1700 grams at a height of 295 millimeters.|
|09||Vandal resistant and resistant to 10 Joule shocks||A falling object of 5000 grams at a height of 200 millimeters.|
|10||Vandal resistant and resistant to 20 Joule shocks||A falling object of 5000 grams at a height of 400 millimeters.|
Here you can view your favorite lighting: